Southern Zimbabwe and much of South Africa are within a region of scrublands as well as many smaller ones, most located in the open or partially wooded plains. Shifting geographic and political boundaries and changing historiographical who roamed the highland savanna plains of Southern Africa date from about. Africa is a continent comprising 63 political territories, representing the largest of the great The South African Plateau, as far as about 12° S, is bounded east, west and south by bands of high ground which fall steeply to the coasts. Towards the south the two lines converge and give place to one great valley ( occupied by. South africa location extent and boundaries in dating - Best dating app android The area of South Africa is 1,, sq km (, sq mi).
South Africa - Wikipedia
The act was not applicable in the Cape Province because it conflicted with the terms under which that province had entered the union. However, at this stage, nationalists sought coexistence, not overt confrontation, with white society. The Native Land and Trust Act of The Natives Land Commission established through the Land Act soon ran into fierce opposition on the part of white landowners who were unwilling to sacrifice their own farms to advance the general principle of segregation that they endorsed—a response which was to dog state land acquisition plans for the reserves throughout the 20th century.
When it finally reported inthe commission recommended adding a little over 7 million hectares to the scheduled areas across the four provinces. It was thus only two decades later, inwhen a white coalition government under Afrikaner nationalist General Hertzog was in office, that the Native Trust and Land Act Act 18 was passed.
This approved the addition of 6. Click to view larger Figure 1. African Reserves in South Africa, September South African Institute of Race Relations, Critically, the Land Act was made possible through a political trade-off within the white ruling elite.
More land for the reserves came at the cost of the non-racial franchise in the Cape. Agrarian Change The first half of the 20th century was a period of significant change in the political economy of South Africa. Inmining at 27 percent and agriculture at 22 percent of national income dominated the economy. Although still hungry for cheap black labor, commercial farming was beginning to mechanize—the national tractor fleet, for instance, increased from just 6, in to over 20, in These included special credit facilities, the establishment of Marketing Boards in the s, and conservation measures aimed at reversing widespread land degradation.
Impoverished Afrikaner households moved off the land in significant numbers—between and the percentage of urbanized Afrikaners mushroomed from under 3 percent to 50 percent. This, coupled with the demands of the manufacturing sector for a more stable and skilled workforce, prompted a reconsideration of urban policy in the ruling United Party in the postwar period. Inthe Native Laws Fagan Commission proposed policy changes that favored a more accommodating approach to black urban dwellers—a policy option that, had it prevailed, would have set the country on a very different trajectory from what transpired after Strong mobilization against the Group Areas Act in metropolitan suburbs such as District Six in Cape Town and Cato Manor in Durban placed the issue of urban land rights firmly on the national political agenda.
Inthe pass laws system was overhauled and expanded to encompass all Africans, including women who until then had been largely exempt. Along with this went the establishment of a network of labor bureaus designed to control the migrant labor system more tightly and defend the conceit of territorial segregation that legitimized it.
Central to the entire apartheid project was the political repositioning of the native reserves of and as not only the authentic but also the only homelands of the African majority. The first step was taken inwith the Bantu Authorities Act Act The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around The southernmost group was the Xhosa peoplewhose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people.
As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples. In Mpumalanga Provinceseveral stone circles have been found along with the stone arrangement that has been named Adam's Calendar. The two major historic groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples.
Inthe Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias led the first European voyage to land in southern Africa.
Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa. After 8 Januaryprevented by storms from proceeding along the coast, he sailed out of sight of land and passed the southernmost point of Africa without seeing it.
He reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as, what he called, Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot Riverin Maybut on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas Cape of Storms.
Dutch colonisation See also: History of Cape Colony and Dutch Cape Colony Charles Davidson Bell 's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeckwho founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in By the early 17th century, Portugal's maritime power was starting to decline, and English and Dutch merchants competed to oust Lisbon from its lucrative monopoly on the spice trade.
Helena as alternative ports of refuge. The sailors were able to survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the natives.
During the early s, many Dutch settlers departed from the Cape Colonywhere they had been subjected to British control. The Boers founded the Boer Republics: The discovery of diamonds in and gold in in the interior started the Mineral Revolution and increased economic growth and immigration.
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This intensified British efforts to gain control over the indigenous peoples. The volcanic suites are dominated by basaltic and komatiitic lavas, often interlayered with metasediments and generally referred to as greenstone belts.
Those structures are often found together with layered gneisses, or they are intruded by granitoid plutons. Several generations of greenstones have been recognized. The oldest formed about 3. Some of the oldest traces of life are preserved as unicellular algae in Precambrian cherts of the Barberton greenstone belt in the Transvaal region of South Africa. One of the most spectacular features marking the end of the Archean is the intrusion of the Great Dyke in Zimbabwea large, layered body of mafic-ultramafic rocks with substantial deposits of chromium, asbestos, and nickel.
It is still not clear whether Archean evolution was characterized by the same plate tectonic processes that are seen today, and there are suggestions that the greenstone belts are remnants of ancient oceanic crust.
Cratonic essentially undeformed sediments appear in the stratigraphic record for the first time in the late Archean and are best developed in the Kaapvaal craton of Southern Africa. The early Proterozoic about 2.
Of particular interest are extensive stromatolite-bearing limestones and economically important iron formations in the Transvaal sequence of South Africa that provide evidence for an oxygen-rich atmosphere by about 2. About 2 billion years ago the Bushveld Complex —which is one of the largest differentiated igneous bodies on Earthcontaining major deposits of platinumchromiumand vanadium —was emplaced in the northern Kaapvaal craton.
The middle part of the early Proterozoic was dominated by powerful orogenic mountain-building processes that gave rise to fold belts in which sedimentary and volcanic rocks originally deposited in deep basins along the continental margins were severely deformed, metamorphosed, intruded by granitoid plutons, and finally uplifted into mountain ranges, probably as a result of continental collision.
That Eburnian event was particularly active in western Africa, where it deformed the Birimian assemblages; but it was also active in eastern Africa, where it generated the Ubendian belt in southern Tanzaniaand in southwestern Africa, where it formed major rock units in Angola and northern Namibia. By the end of the early Proterozoic, the Archean crustal blocks had grown into cratons of considerable size.
Geography of Africa - Wikipedia
The record of the middle Proterozoic about 1. Undeformed or only mildly folded successions are found in Southern Africa Waterberg and Matsap sequencesin northern Zambia, and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Elsewhere, sedimentary and volcanic sequences were deposited in elongate basins that were later subjected to intense deformation and metamorphism during the Kibaran event.
That important thermotectonic episode gave rise to the Kibaran-Burundian fold belt in east-central Africa, the Ruwenzori belt in Ugandaand the Namaqua-Natal belt in South Africa and Namibia. The late Proterozoic about 1 billion to million years ago is again characterized by platform deposits in stable areas, such as the West African craton Taoudeni and Tindouf basinsthe Congo craton, the Kalahari craton Nama basin of Namibiaand the Tanzania craton Bukoban beds.
Tectonic and magmatic activity was concentrated in mobile belts surrounding the stable areas and took place throughout the late Proterozoic, during the so-called Pan-African thermotectonic event. Long, linear belts—such as the Damara-Katanga of central and southwestern Africa, the Mozambique belt of eastern Africa, and the Dahomey-Ahaggar belt of western Africa—formed during that time, and some of those belts contain diagnostic rock assemblages that indicate that they resulted from continental collisions.
Many late Precambrian sequences of Africa contain one or two beds of tillites sedimentary rocks that are composed of lithified clay and rock sediments produced by the action of icewhich are thought to have resulted from an extensive glaciation that covered much of Africa at that time. In the Arabian Eastern Desert of Egypt and in the Red Sea Hills of Sudana predominance of volcanic rocks and granitoids, together with frequent remnants of ancient oceanic crust, document an evolution similar to what is now occurring in the island-arc systems of the southwestern Pacific.
Those rocks clearly demonstrate that plate tectonic processes operated in the late Precambrian.
Land Question in South Africa: and Beyond - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History
The continent of Africa may be said to have taken shape during the Paleozoic. A glacial period during the Ordovician is evidenced by widespread deposition tilliteswhich may be seen in southern Morocco, throughout western Africa, and in subequatorial Africa as far south as Namibia. That tillite sequence marks the transition from the end of the Precambrian to the beginning of the Cambrian Period. In Egypt and in the Arabian Peninsula their presence has been revealed by drilling. Elsewhere they remain unknown.
During the Ordovician Period about to million years agofossiliferous marine sandstone completely covered northern and western Africa, including the Sahara. The Table Mountain sandstone of South Africa constitutes its only other trace.
Geography of Africa
That period is, in addition, remarkable for broad, large-scale deformation of the African crust, which raised the continental table of the central and western Sahara by approximately 5, feet 1, metres.
Each emergence resulted in the creation of valleys that became flooded when the continent subsided. Toward the end of the period, the Sahara became glaciated, and tillites and sandstones filled the valleys. A complete change of sedimentation characterized the Silurian Period about to million years agowhich is indicated by the deposits of graptolitic shales those containing small fossil colonies of extinct marine animals of uncertain zoological affinity in the Arabian Peninsula and in northwestern Africa.
Marine fossils of the Devonian Period about to million years ago are found in North Africa and in the Sahara. Fossilized plants that include Archaeosigillaria ancient club mosses may be traced in formations of the earlier Devonian Period in the Sahara and in South Africa Witteberg Series.
The Carboniferous Period about to million years ago was marked by the onset of several major tectonic events.