ISSN: (Print); ISSN: (Online). Poetry as Goethe's West- Eastern Divan may be considered an excellent role model of dates from ..  Goethe in den Maximen und Reflexionen Nr. , see. Get Instant Access to Maximen Und Reflexionen By Johann Wolfgang Von. Goethe #e3a PDF Reflexionen By Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe Mobi Online. Maximen Und Date of publishing: October 26th, Number of pages. withoutyouitsjustnot.us: Maximen und Reflexionen (Audible Audio Edition): Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Reiner Unglaub, Audible Audiobook; Listening Length: 7 hours and 34 minutes; Program Type: Audiobook; Version: Unabridged; Publisher: Random House Audio, Deutschland; withoutyouitsjustnot.us Release Date: Shop Online.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, ) | The Online Books Page
Iphigenie auf Taurisa verse reworking of an earlier play, and Torquato Tasso exemplify the new style. Returning to Weimar, Goethe took a new mistress, Christiane Vulpius, who bore him a son in and whom he married in Many of Goethe's scientific studies were published in this period: Earlier he had published his discovery that a part of the human jawbone is analogous to the intermaxillary bone in apes Goethe returned to Italy in but did not find the excitement and inspiration of his earlier travels.
In he accompanied Karl August in a battle against the French revolutionaries. In began Goethe's friendship—more literary and intellectual than personal—with Friedrich Schiller, which lasted until Schiller's death in Schiller was a sympathetic critic and he encouraged Goethe's work on Faust.
It has been thought that Schiller's Kantian background stimulated Goethe's interest in Immanuel Kantbut Goethe was familiar with Kant's writings even before While the political and social tumult of the Napoleonic era dominated the minds of his contemporaries, Goethe calmly concentrated his attention on optics and plant morphology.
Perhaps as a result of Goethe's indifference to the popular causes of nationalism and democracy, his reputation declined somewhat, but the appearance of Faust Part I in and the psychological novel Die Wahlverwandtschaften Elective affinities in served to restore his stature.
Some of Goethe's subsequent works were Zur Farbenlehre Toward the theory of colors;which contains an extended attack on Isaac Newton's theory of light; Dichtung und Wahrheit Poetry and truth,and, posthumously,a series of autobiographical essays; Italienische Reise —the record of his Italian travels; Zur Morphologie — ; and the second part of Faust, completed injust before his death. Goethe was buried in Weimar beside Schiller. Philosophy Although Goethe was not a systematic thinker and even asserted that philosophy only ruined him for poetry, he was aware of the philosophical and scientific tendencies and controversies of his time; and while he admitted his lack of a "proper organ for philosophy," he did not hesitate to express himself on numerous philosophical and scientific questions.
Maximen und Reflexionen
In addition to specific essays and pronouncements, his poems and novels were often vehicles for expressing his intellectual convictions concerning God, man, and nature. Goethe first became slightly acquainted with Spinoza's philosophy while in Strasbourg, but it was in that his acquaintance with Friedrich Jacobi who regarded Spinoza's views as the only rational philosophy drew his full attention to Spinoza.
Goethe's commitment to pantheism is often cited to show his agreement with Spinoza. Yet when Goethe himself spoke of his relation to Spinoza, he emphasized the ethical as much as the metaphysical doctrines of Spinoza and Spinoza's "all-harmonizing peace," which contrasted with his own restlessness.
Spinoza's rejection of final causes and his defense of determinism and of the view that praise, condemnation, and regret are attitudes reflecting an inadequate understanding of inexorable natural processes were accepted by Goethe and given expression in Faust especially in the opening scene of Part II. Goethe said that Spinoza's mathematical method was the opposite of his own poetic way of feeling and expressing, and that Spinoza's orderly treatment of moral questions made Goethe his passionate disciple and convinced admirer.
He defended Spinoza against the charge of atheism and claimed without slavish regard for accuracy that Spinoza was the most theistic and Christian of philosophers, since for him all existence is God and thus no proof of God's existence is needed. The central thesis of Spinoza's system, Goethe thought, was that the universe contains and expresses a creative force which appears as a duality Zweiheit but is in fact a unity.
God is not simply the cause but the indwelling spirit of the world, the allembracing actuality. Goethe, however, questioned Spinoza's contention that reason can attain an adequate knowledge of God-nature. We cannot comprehend this infinite whole, and when we attempt to do so, even in a limited way, we must use imagination and intuition, not the method of mathematics. The universe consists of an infinite number of unique beings—Leibnizian monads—each alive and harmonious with all others.
The essence of these individuals is activity and creativity. Goethe's knowledge of Leibniz was probably derived from Goethe's friend Johann Kaspar Lavaterthe Swiss theologian who linked his theory of phrenology with the theory of Leibniz's monadology, and from the Earl of Shaftesbury, whose presentation of Leibnizian optimism involved the belief, so congenial to Goethe, that nature's physical beauty expresses the divine harmony.
Thus, while he found Leibniz's confident optimism appealing, he also praised Kant for destroying the popular optimistic teleology of commonsense philosophers who with Philistine wisdom sought to demonstrate that everything in nature exists to satisfy some human purpose.
Goethe's enthusiasm for Kant was mainly based on Kant's Critique of Judgment. He was pleased with Kant's claim that nature and art both resemble purposive agents but pursue no external goal. He maintained also that art mediates between nature and freedom, since it is produced by the artist in conformity with principles that operate in nature as well.
Goethe, like many of Kant's contemporaries including Moses Mendelssohn and Johann Gottfried Herderhad little understanding of the Critique of Pure Reason ; and while he praised Kant's ethics, he rejected most of Kant's central claims. In particular, he denied the opposition of duty and inclination, reason and sensuality, and regarded Kant's Calvinistic notion of a radical evil in human nature as a sad regression toward Christian orthodoxy.
Goethe also took exception to Kant's view of knowledge. He insisted that imagination Phantasie was an avenue to knowledge distinct from and supplementary to Kant's faculties of reason, understanding, and sensibility.
Furthermore, Goethe held, men are capable of intellectual intuitions, and with such nonsensuous insights they may hope to penetrate the heart of nature. Scientific Theories Goethe thought his scientific theories were as important as his literary works.
In optics the primal phenomenon is the opposition or antipathy of light and darkness. In the organic realm there are primal shapes and modes of development that nature repeatedly uses, like a theme and variations in music. The same organ is transformed manifoldly through metamorphosis. In plants the leaf is the organ that is varied to form all the parts of the plant.
The study of the basic formations, morphology Gestaltenwould disclose the secret principles according to which nature operates. Seeking the primal image or idea by observing and comparing the metamorphosis of organisms, Goethe conjectured that a primal plant Urpflanzemight be the basic model according to which all plants are patterned.
This theory has sometimes been cited to show Goethe as a forerunner of the theory of evolution, but it is not at all clear that he believed in the historical evolution of species from a common ancestor. The doctrine of the Urpflanze is more Platonistic and, perhaps, mythical than Darwinian, Charles Darwin's reference to Goethe as a "path-maker" notwithstanding.
He believed that numbers and equations only distort our vision of nature. Isaac Newton's physics was repellent to him; Newton's theory that white light contained the spectrum seemed to him absurd because light was an elemental entity, an inscrutable attribute of the world that could not be analyzed.
Goethe attempted to explain the origin of color phenomena out of an original polar opposition of light and dark. If light and dark are mixed directly, the result is gray; but a "murky medium" such as a prism, according to Goethe produces a cooperation of the polar opposites, and this cooperation produces colors. It was [the Queen of England] who bought a new hat in Paris d. What the Queen of England did in Paris was [buy a new hat] b.
What the Queen of England did was [buy a new hat in Paris] c. What the Queen of England bought in Paris was [a new hat] d. Where the Queen of England bought a new hat was [in Paris] e. The Queen bought in Paris [a brand new hat created by Dior] 19 a.
Maximen und Reflexionen – Wikipedia
Who [ ] [bought [a new hat]] [in Paris]? What did [the Queen of England] [buy [ ]] [in Paris]? Where did [the Queen of England] [buy [a new hat]] [ ]? The subject is not relevant here, because all verbs require a subject, and this property therefore cannot be used when classifying verb types. The elements relevant for subcategorisation all occur inside the VP. All three are prepositional phrases.
Henry heard a strange noise b. Henry heard that Fred liked linguistics Da. The professor gave the book to the library b. The professor read the book in her office to the library in 32a is an argument, whereas in her office in 32b is an adjunct. Arguments are the elements that are assigned thematic roles e. They typically have the grammatical role of subject, direct object, or indirect object. Arguments are very closely linked to the verb.
This is also why arguments are not optional in general. Arguments get their meaning from the main verb, cf. Adjuncts are less closely linked to the verb, this is also why they are always optional.
Adjuncts do not get their meaning directly from the main verb, cf. The professor saw the book c. The professor gave the student the book b. This relation between the number of thematic roles and the number of arguments is known as the theta criterion Chomsky Every argument is assigned one and only one thematic role b. Every thematic role is assigned to one and only one argument Vikner: The phrase structure of VP It is possible to refer to a preceding VP without repeating it word for word: Henry will buy presents in Paris tomorrow and Joe will do so, too b.
Henry will buy presents in Paris tomorrow and Joe will do so next week c. Henry will buy presents in Paris tomorrow and Joe will do so in Bolton next week d. By assuming that the three constituents are of the same category, namely VP: I do so must substitute at least the verb and the following object if there is one II do so must substitute at least the verb and the following NP if there is one If I is right, then there should be a difference between the following two structures, but if II is right, then there shouldn't be any difference: This captures that when both are present, his mother must precede next week, and also that do so may replace either call his mother or call his mother next week, but not just call: Joe has bought a new watch b.
Fred will write a letter b. Frederik vil skrive et brev b. Joe will buy a new watch there b. Joe will hardly buy a new watch 57 Da.
Joe will buy a new watch soon b. Joe will soon buy a new watch 59 Da. Danish and English VPs thus allow both 49 and It is perfectly possible e. Are the following languages V-O or O-V: Aukje siet te eameljen wylst Brechtsje it wurk die Aukje sat to gossip while Brechtsje the work did b.
Junko-ga hon-o yonda Junko. The phrase structure of NP First, an important revision: Instead, what was earlier seen as an NP is now seen as a DP determiner phrase. Modifiers may be adjoined to the left or to the right. The article is the head of its own projection DP, i. Other examples of D are demonstratives, e. Under a DP-analysis, the demonstrative pronoun this and the demonstrative article pronoun this are thus both D s.
Here we will focus on the NP. Let us begin with the difference between the two. Nice man though he is, my uncle can be a little boring b. I met a nice man 77 Da. Stor dyreven som han var, den lille Emil, lukkede han katten ud b. These nice German tables and chairs b. These nice German tables and French chairs c.
These nice German tables and horrible French chairs d. These nice German tables and those horrible French chairs 80 Da. These chairs from Germany are cheaper than the ones over there b.
These chairs from Germany are cheaper than the ones from France over there How can we capture the fact that two different constituents may be replaced by one and the same element?
By assuming that the two constituents are of the same category, namely NP: Is of linguistics it a complement or a modifier? How can this contribute to an explanation of the differences in 85 and 86? The teacher of linguistics with an American accent knows more about German than the one with a Danish accent b. A teacher of linguistics with an American accent b.
The translation by Smith was published before the one by Jones The comparison of English and Danish VPs to German VPs showed a fundamental difference with respect to the order of head and complement. As far as NPs are concerned, there would seem to be no such fundamental difference, the complement follows N in all three languages: The brutal destruction of the city b. The nice description of the city b. The students with long hair voted for Blair b.
My brothers in Bolton voted for Blair b.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (–) | withoutyouitsjustnot.us
My brothers who live in Bolton voted for Blair b. My brothers living in Bolton voted for Blair b. NP NP modifier b. Also here Korean is different, the noun must follow its complement,jf. Are the following languages N -complement or complement-n: Jiko -no setsumei b. Kaza -nin yazilma -si b. Y disgrifiad o'r ddamwain The description of-the accident from Sadler The phrase structure of DP As was said on p. I met a nice man En.
I found your uncle a nice man It should be admitted, however, that it only happens very rarely that an NP is not part of a DP. Not just English this book and this, but also e. Danish den bog and den, German das Buch and das, and French le livre and le.
This also allows a straight-forward analysis of cases where other pronouns seem to occur as determiners: The actor 's disappearance was mysterious b.
His disappearance was mysterious d. His book was expensive This analysis has two advantages: It predicts that possessor phrases and articles do not cooccur, because both 's and the have to be in D.
And it predicts that 's occurs not on the noun in the possessor DP as it would if it was a real case ending but after the entire possessor DP: In [ DP a year or so]'s time Google hits, Nov. The phrase structure of IP and V -to-i movement 5.