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As the height of the mound rose, the occupational area generally decreased though sometimes the reverse occurred; Albright,p. When the site was finally abandoned, wind and rain leveled the top and eroded the sides, until a city wall or other structure halted the erosion process.
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The shape of these mounds resembles a truncated cone see Unger,pp. Most important biblical sites have this characteristic form, which trained archaeologists readily recognize. Excavation and Dating Once a tell has been identified, then comes the arduous and fastidious task of excavation. There is more to excavating one of these mounds than merely removing each successive occupational layer, since artifacts from one stratum can intrude into another level. Archaeologists, therefore, have developed methods that help them identify artifacts with their proper stratum see Kenyon, a, pp.
These methods also assist them in developing a sequential chronology of the tell, since artifacts from the top layer represent the most recent civilization and the bottom layer represents the oldest. Often, and especially for ancient dates, radiocarbon and dendrochronology i.
For more recent dates, archaeologists generally rely on a sophisticated dating system based upon pottery, which is used extensively in Syro-Palestinian archaeology. Sir Flinders Petriethe famed Egyptologist, first introduced this method, and William Albright, the distinguished American archaeologist, refined it further. Pottery serves well for dating purposes for at least two reasons: This system associates the marked changes of pottery styles with different archaeological ages see Figure 1.
Cross section through an idealized tell showing pottery types, and successive layers of settlement from ancient to modern times. The evolutionary-based archaeological timescale on the right comes from Silberman How do pottery types date the strata from which they are unearthed? Suppose workers discover a cooking pot with relatively straight sides, a row of holes just below the rim, and a rope decoration below the holes. According to pottery typology, this kind of vessel was dominant in the Middle Bronze Age c.IMAGINE DRAGONS in The Voice Kids
Further, the dates determined by this scheme often coincide with biblical chronology. Such finds and there are many confirm the historical data of the biblical text. The chronologies supplied with the genealogies from Adam to Abraham prohibit the Earth from being as old as the archaeological timescale indicates. If Seth were, for example, a distant relative of Adam, nevertheless, Adam was years old when Seth was born Genesis 5: The archaeological timescale indicates a Paleolithic era which dates back toyears ago.
Such a timetable forces the Creation back several thousand more years than allowed by biblical chronology. Conquest of Canaan Second, biblical and archaeological dates of some historical events are in conflict.
A classic example of this chronological tension is the conquest of Canaan. Again, excavations at Jericho, the first fortified city conquered by the Israelites Joshuaare at the heart of this controversy.
John Garstang was the first to employ modern pottery chronology to explore this biblical site. Based on pottery in the destruction debris, and other artifacts in the nearby cemetery, he associated City IV with the first city Israel defeated in the conquest. Pottery stands at the center of the interpretive and dating discrepancies of the conquest. The following principles might be helpful as we struggle with the increasing antagonism toward the Scriptures from the field of archaeology. Evolutionary Assumptions As a rule, archaeologists endorse evolutionary assumptions that the Earth is ancient and that man developed gradually—both physically and intellectually—over millions of years.
Kenyon attributed the development of the Jordan Valley to vast terrestrial movements two million years ago Kenyon, b, p. With his discovery of fire, he learned to fashion tools from copper and iron. Thus, archaeologists assume that centuries transpired before man graduated from stone tools and weapons to metallic implements. This, however, is an assumption that is plainly at odds with biblical revelation.
Man was highly intelligent from the dawn of Creation, and possessed the ability to manufacture tools and musical instruments indicative of artistic ability from metals Genesis 4: Further, the descendants of Noah retained the technical ability for making tools and weapons, which would allow for rapid cultural recovery and restoration after the Flood see Vaninger, b, In addition, the divinely prompted dispersion from Babel would account for the cultural disparity between ancient Egypt and Mesopotamian cultures.
Researchers have found virtually no evidence of unsophisticated cultures in Egypt; advanced civilization in that region veritably explodes onto the historical scene. In contrast, Mesopotamia exhibits a clear cultural development from simple societies to more advanced civilization Vaninger, a, This has puzzled archaeologists for many years. But, the ancient dispersion could account for these disparate cultural developments. Evidence indicates that an aggressive transfusion of culture from the Near and Middle East into Egypt occurred in ancient history, which directly corresponds to biblical information cf.
Those who migrated to Egypt obviously carried with them both culture and technology more advanced than those possessed by the people who remained in the Mesopotamian region.
Accordingly, highly developed civilizations, and cultures which used stone implements, were contemporary; they were not separated by millennia.
Even today, some cultures remain isolated from advanced technology, and continue to employ implements generally associated with the so-called Stone Age see Livingston,5: Thus, evidence of settlements using stone tools does not demand an ancient Earth.
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Paucity of Evidence Second, we must recognize that archaeological evidence is fragmentary and, therefore, greatly limited. Despite the amount of potsherds, bones, ornaments, or tools collected from a given site, the evidence reflects only a paltry fraction of what existed in antiquity Brandfon,14: Unearthed data often are insufficient, inconclusive, and subject to biased interpretation.
A second public meeting was held Wednesday night in Hobbs, NM. Others included the usual suspects a few local state legislators and someone from the Chamber of Commerce as well as Xcel Energy, which owns two nuclear plants — Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant near Monticello, Minnesotaand Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant near Red Wing, Minnesota and currently stores the spent fuel from these nuclear plants on site in independent spent fuel storage installations.
There is one final public meeting in Carlsbad this evening. At the final May 3rd meeting in Carlsbad, NM, 34 citizens spoke in opposition and turned in comment letters opposing the siting of the Holtec proposed interim high level radioactive waste dump in New Mexico.
Twenty seven spoke in favor of the proposal. In addition to the public comments on the proposal itself, at least one individual has pointed out issues with the process. There is at least a 15 year history outlining the need for information in Spanish in this area. NRC should have been aware of this before even considering licensing a facility in Southeastern New Mexico and certainly before starting the public process for the Holtec application.
Questions were asked about Spanish outreach and public notice done by NRC in the state about these hearings and the licensing process for this facility? Was there any public notice in a language other than English? Without enhanced public notice in Spanish and possibly in various Native languages as well as oral notice in communities where this is the primary way of communicatinga significant portion of the people of New Mexico have been left out of the public process for this facility.
At this time there has been no detailed response from NRC to these questions. A large portion of the people of the state will be impacted by the transportation phase of this project. These New Mexicans should not have been eliminated from the public process for this facility.
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The open house was followed by a public meeting which included an opportunity for public comment. There were over 95 in attendance, filling the room to capacity, causing the local fire marshall to close the doors to additional attendance.
There are many reasons for opposing this dangerous plan and 36 spoke in opposition citing various reasons for their objections that included: