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The Cantos - Wikipedia
Elliot has drawn a parallel between Pound and Adolf Eichmann based on their antisemitism,  while at the other Marjorie Perloff places Pound's antisemitism in a wider context by examining the political views of many of his contemporaries, arguing that "We have to try to understand why" antisemitism was widespread in the early twentieth century, "and not say let's get rid of Ezra Pound, who also happens to be one of the greatest poets of the 20th C.
I found after seventy years that I was not a lunatic but a moron I should have been able to do better Louis Zukofsky who was Jewish defended Pound on the basis of his personal knowledge of antisemitism on the level of human exchange — even though according to William Cookson  their correspondence contained some of Pound's offensive views. Thus, although Pound distrusted the masses, "foreigners," and so forth, The Cantos themselves with their references to Confuciusthe agrarian populism of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian Democracyand even the "enlightened despotism" of Leopold II reflect the underlying conservative sentiment behind his more well-known social and economic views including his antisemitism.
Blackmuran early critic, wrote, The Cantos are not complex, they are complicated; they are not arrayed by logic or driven by pursuing emotion, they are connected because they follow one another, are set side by side, and because an anecdote, an allusion or a sentence begun in one Canto may be continued in another and may never be completed at all; and as for a theme to be realized, they seem to have only, like Mauberleythe general sense of continuity — not unity — which may arise in the mind when read seriatim.
The Cantos are what Mr Pound himself called them in a passage now excised from the canon, a rag-bag. Eliot had previously approached the subject of fragmentation of human experience: The Cantos takes a position between the mythic unity of Eliot's poem and Joyce's flow of consciousness and attempting to work out how history as fragment and personality as shattered by modern existence can cohere in the "field" of poetry.
In his essay A Retrospect, Pound wrote "I think there is a 'fluid' as well as a 'solid' content, that some poems may have form as a tree has form, some as water poured into a vase. That most symmetrical forms have certain uses. That a vast number of subjects cannot be precisely, and therefore not properly rendered in symmetrical forms". Critics like Hugh Kenner who take a more positive view of The Cantos have tended to follow this hint, seeing the poem as a poetic record of Pound's life and reading that sends out new branches as new needs arise with the final poem, like a tree, displaying a kind of unpredictable inevitability.
Live man goes down into world of dead. The 'magic moment' or moment of metamorphosis, bust through from quotidian into 'divine or permanent world. Images of light are used variously, and may represent Neoplatonic ideas of divinity, the artistic impulse, love both sacred and physical and good governance, amongst other things. The moon is frequently associated in the poem with creativity, while the sun is more often found in relation to the sphere of political and social activity, although there is frequent overlap between the two.
From the Rock Drill sequence on, the poem's effort is to merge these two aspects of light into a unified whole. The original publication dates for the groups of cantos are as given below. Pound had been considering writing a long poem since aroundbut work did not begin until May when Pound wrote to his mother that he was working on a long poem.
He published the first three cantos in June, July and Augustin the journal Poetry. In this version, the poem began as an address by the poet to Robert Browning. Pound came to believe that this narrative voice compromised the intent of his poetic vision, and these first three ur-cantos were soon abandoned and a new starting point sought. The answer was a Latin version of Homer 's Odyssey by the Renaissance scholar Andreas Divus that Pound had bought in Paris sometime between and Using the metre and syntax of his version of the Anglo-Saxon poem The SeafarerPound made an English version of Divus' rendering of the nekuia episode in which Odysseus and his companions sail to Hades in order to find out what their future holds.
In using this passage to open the poem, Pound introduces a major theme: He also echoes Dante 's opening to The Divine Comedy in which the poet also descends into hell to interrogate the dead. Canto II opens with some lines rescued from the ur-cantos in which Pound reflects on the indeterminacy of identity by setting side by side four different versions of the troubadour poet Sordello: These lines are followed by a sequence of identity shifts involving a seal, the daughter of Lirand other figures associated with the sea: Eleanor of Aquitaine who, through a pair of Homeric epithets that echo her name, shifts into Helen of TroyHomer with his ear for the "sea surge", the old men of Troy who want to send Helen back over the sea, and an extended, Imagistic retelling of the story of the abduction of Dionysus by sailors and his transformation of his abductors into dolphins.
Although this last story is found in the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus, also contained in the Divus volume, Pound draws on the version in Ovid 's poem Metamorphosesthus introducing the world of ancient Rome into the poem. Portrait by Piero della Francesca. The next five cantos III—VIIagain drawing heavily on Pound's Imagist past for their technique, are essentially based in the Mediterranean, drawing on classical mythologyRenaissance history, the world of the troubadoursSappho 's poetry, a scene from the legend of El Cid that introduces the theme of banking and creditand Pound's own visits to Venice to create a textual collage saturated with Neoplatonic images of clarity and light.
Quoting extensively from primary sources, including Malatesta's letters, Pound especially focuses on the building of the church of San Francesco, also known as the Tempio Malatestiano. Designed by Leon Battista Alberti and decorated by artists including Piero della Francesca and Agostino di Ducciothis was a landmark Renaissance building, being the first church to use the Roman triumphal arch as part of its structure.
For Pound, who spent a good deal of time seeking patrons for himself, JoyceEliot and a string of little magazines and small pressesthe role of the patron was a crucial cultural question, and Malatesta is the first in a line of ruler-patrons to appear in The Cantos. Canto XII consists of three moral tales on the subject of profit. The central parable contrasts this with wealth-creation based on the creation of useful goods. Canto XIII then introduces Confuciusor Kung, who is presented as the embodiment of the ideal of social order based on ethics.
This section of The Cantos concludes with a vision of Hell. In Canto XVI, Pound emerges from Hell and into an earthly paradise where he sees some of the personages encountered in earlier cantos. The poem then moves to recollections of World War I, and of Pound's writer and artist friends who fought in it. These include Richard AldingtonT.
Finally, there is a transcript of Lincoln Steffens ' account of the Russian Revolution. These two events, the war and revolution, mark a decisive break with the historic past, including the early modernist period when these writers and artists formed a more-or-less coherent movement. He then added a further three cantos and the whole eventually appeared as A Draft of XXX Cantos in an edition of copies. The major locus of these cantos is the city of Venice.
The rest of the canto is concerned with Venice, which is portrayed as a stone forest growing out of the water. Canto XIX deals mainly with those who profit from war, returning briefly to the Russian Revolution, and ends on the stupidity of wars and those who promote them. These fragments constellate to form an exemplum of what Pound calls "clear song".
There follows another exemplum, this time of the linguistic scholarship that enables us to read these old poetries and the specific attention to words this study requires. Finally, this "clear song" and intellectual activity is implicitly contrasted with the inertia and indolence of the lotus eaterswhose song completes the canto.
There are references to the Malatesta family and to Borso d'Estewho tried to keep the peace between the warring Italian city states. These are contrasted with the actions of Thomas Jeffersonwho is shown as a cultured leader with an interest in the arts. A phrase from one of Sigismondo Pandolfo's letters inserted into the Jefferson passage draws an explicit parallel between the two men, a theme that is to recur later in the poem.
The next canto continues the focus on finance by introducing the Social Credit theories of C. Douglas for the first time. Anecdotes on Titian and Mozart deal with the relationship between artist and patron. The last two cantos in the series return to the world of "clear song". Finally, the series closes with a glimpse of the printer Hieronymus Soncinus of Fano preparing to print the works of Petrarch.
Canto XXXI opens with the Malatesta family motto Tempus loquendi, tempus tacendi "a time to speak, a time to be silent" to link again Jefferson and Sigismondo as individuals and the Italian and American "rebirths" as historical movements.
L'inverno del mondo - Wikipedia
Canto XXXV contrasts the dynamism of Revolutionary America with the "general indefinite wobble" of the decaying aristocratic society of Mitteleuropa. This canto contains some distinctly unpleasant expressions of antisemitic opinions. This poem, a lyric meditation of the nature and philosophy of love, was a touchstone text for Pound. The canto then closes with the figure of the 9th-century Irish philosopher and poet John Scotus Eriugenawho was an influence on the Cathars and whose writings were condemned as heretical in both the 11th and 13th centuries.
The canto then turns to modern commerce and the arms trade and introduces Frobenius as "the man who made the tempest". There is also a passage on Douglas' account of the problem of purchasing power. Canto XXXIX returns to the island of Circe and the events before the voyage undertaken in the first canto unfolds as a hymn to natural fertility and ritual sex. Canto XL opens with Adam Smith on trade as a conspiracy against the general public, followed by another periplusa condensed version of Hanno the Navigator 's account of his voyage along the west coast of Africa.
The book closes with an account of Benito Mussolini as a man of action and another lament on the waste of war. Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldowho sought to end state debt and protected agricultural implements from sequestration for personal debt.
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Portrait by Stefano Gaetano Neri. Founded inthe Monte dei Paschi was a low-interest, not-for-profit credit institution whose funds were based on local productivity as represented by the natural increase generated by the grazing of sheep on community land the "BANK of the grassland" of Canto XLIII.
As such, it represents a Poundian non-capitalist ideal. Canto XLV is a litany against Usura or usurywhich Pound later defined as a charge on credit regardless of potential or actual production and the creation of wealth ex nihilo by a bank to the benefit of its shareholders. The canto declares this practice as both contrary to the laws of nature and inimical to the production of good art and culture.
Pound later came to see this canto as a key central point in the poem. Canto XLVI contrasts what has gone before with the practices of institutions such as the Bank of England that are designed to exploit the issuing of credit to make profits, thereby, in Pound's view, contributing to poverty, social deprivation, crime and the production of "bad" art as exemplified by the baroque.
There follows a long lyrical passage in which a ritual of floating votive candles on the bay at Rapallo near Pound's home every July merges with the cognate myths of Tammuz and Adonisagricultural activity set in a calendar based on natural cycles, and fertility rituals. The canto then moves via Montsegur to the village of St-Bertrand-de-Comminges, which stands on the site of the ancient city of Lugdunum Convenarum.
The destruction of this city represents, for the poet, the treatment of civilisation by those he considers barbarous. Canto XLIX is a poem of tranquil nature derived from a Chinese picture book that Pound's parents brought with them when they retired to Rapallo. Canto L, which again contains antisemitic statements, moves from John Adams to the failure of the Medici bank and more general images of European decay since the time of Napoleon I.
The final canto in this sequence returns to the usura litany of Canto XLV, followed by detailed instructions on making flies for fishing man in harmony with nature and ends with a reference to the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai and the first Chinese written characters to appear in the poem, representing the Rectification of Names from the Analects of Confucius the ideogram representing honesty at the end of Canto XLI was added when The Cantos was published as a single volume.
These eleven cantos are based on the first eleven volumes[ clarification needed ] of the twelve-volume Histoire generale de la Chine by Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla. De Mailla was a French Jesuit who spent 37 years in Peking and wrote his history there. The work was completed in but not published until — De Mailla was very much an Enlightenment figure and his view of Chinese history reflects this; he found Confucian political philosophy, with its emphasis on rational order, much to his liking.
He also disliked what he saw as the superstitious pseudo-mysticism promulgated by both Buddhists and Taoiststo the detriment of rational politics. Pound, in turn, fitted de Mailla's take on China into his own views on Christianity, the need for strong leadership to address 20th-century fiscal and cultural problems, and his support of Mussolini.
In an introductory note to the section, Pound is at pains to point out that the ideograms and other fragments of foreign-language text incorporated in The Cantos should not put the reader off, as they serve to underline things that are in the English text. Canto LII opens with references to Duke Leopoldo, John Adams and Gertrude Bellbefore sliding into a particularly virulent antisemitic passage, directed mainly at the Rothschild family. The remainder of the canto is concerned with the classic Chinese text known as the Li Ki or Classic of Ritesespecially those parts that deal with agriculture and natural increase.
The diction is the same as that used in earlier cantos on similar subjects. Special mention is made of emperors that Confucius approved of and the sage's interest in cultural matters is stressed. For example, we are told that he edited the Book of Odescutting it from to poems.
The canto also ascribes the Poundian motto and title of a collection of essays Make it New to the emperor Tching Tang. There is a lot on money policy in this canto and Pound quotes approvingly the Tartar ruler Oulo who noted that the people "cannot eat jewels". This canto is mainly concerned with Genghis and Kublai Khan and the rise of their Yuan dynasty. The canto closes with the overthrow of the Yeun and the establishment of the Ming dynastybringing us to around Canto LVII opens with the story of the flight of the emperor Kien Ouen Ti in or and continues with the history of the Ming up to the middle of the 16th century.
Canto LVIII opens with a condensed history of Japan from the legendary first emperor, Emperor Jimmuwho supposedly ruled in the 7th century BCE, to the lateth-century Toyotomi Hideyoshi anglicised by Pound as Messier Undertreewho issued edicts against Christianity and raided Koreathus putting pressure on China's eastern borders.
The canto then goes on to outline the concurrent pressure placed on the western borders by activities associated with the great Tartar horse fairs, leading to the rise of the Manchu dynasty. Canto LX deals with the activities of the Jesuits, who, we are told, introduced astronomywestern music, physics and the use of quinine. The canto ends with limitations being placed on Christians, who had come to be seen as enemies of the state. Yong Tching is shown banning Christianity as "immoral" and "seeking to uproot Kung's laws".
He also established just prices for foodstuffs, bringing us back to the ideas of Social Credit. There are also references to the Italian RisorgimentoJohn Adams, and Dom Metello de Souzawho gained some measure of relief for the Jesuit mission. This section of the cantos is, for the most part, made up of fragmentary citations from the writings of John Adams.
Pound's intentions appear to be to show Adams as an example of the rational Enlightenment leader, thereby continuing the primary theme of the preceding China Cantos sequence, which these cantos also follow from chronologically. Adams is depicted as a well-rounded figure; he is a strong leader with interests in political, legal and cultural matters in much the same way that Malatesta and Mussolini are portrayed elsewhere in the poem.
The English jurist Sir Edward Cokewho is an important figure in some later cantos, first appears in this section of the poem. Given the fragmentary nature of the citations used, these cantos can be quite difficult to follow for the reader with no knowledge of the history of the United States in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
The rest of the canto is concerned with events leading up to the revolution, Adams' time in France, and the formation of Washington's administration. Alexander Hamilton reappears, again cast as the villain of the piece.
Divina Commedia/Inferno/Canto XXIV
The word is used of Odysseus in the fourth line of the Odyssey: The next canto, Canto LXIII, is concerned with Adams' career as a lawyer and especially his reports of the legal arguments presented by James Otis in the Writs of Assistance case and their importance in the build-up to the revolution. Il primo ministro inglese Chamberlaindopo molte esitazioni, lancia un ultimatum ai tedeschi: Dopo questa esperienza, Daisy si rende finalmente conto di che persona sia Lloyd e capisce di essere innamorata di lui.
Daisy organizza una serata romantica per lei e Lloyd, durante la quale vuole rivelare il suo amore al ragazzo, ma proprio mentre sembra tutto pronto, si presenta a casa Boy. Volodja Peskov si reca in Germania e ingaggia una serie di spie per trasmettere informazioni segrete all'Armata rossa: Carla von Ulrich intanto, dopo aver visto infrangere il suo sogno di diventare medico a causa dell'arretratezza e dei pregiudizi dei nazisti, i quali considerano quella professione non adatta a una donna, intraprende gli studi per diventare infermiera.
Suo fratello Erik invece inizia a studiare medicina insieme al suo amico Herman Braun. La Germania invade la Francia e rapidamente conquista Parigi.
I tedeschi occupano anche il Belgioil Lussemburgo e i Paesi Bassi. Hitler ora controlla mezza Europa. In pochi mesi i nazisti conquistano una buona parte di Russia, arrivando quasi alle porte di Mosca. I sovietici reagiscono e difendono la loro capitale, respingendo i tedeschi, che sono costretti alla ritirata. Woody Dewar rincontra dopo anni Joanne Rouzrokh, e questa volta la ragazza cede al suo corteggiamento.
I due progettano di sposarsi. Il ragazzo tuttavia sogna una carriera politica e inizia a lavorare per il Dipartimento di Stato americano. Scopre inoltre di avere un figlio di colore, Georgy, frutto di una sua relazione giovanile con un'aspirante attrice di nome Jacky Jakes. Greg si affeziona al piccolo ma decide di occuparsene solo come zio. Tornato in Inghilterra per una licenza, Lloyd si ricongiunge con Daisy. I due iniziano a parlare del loro futuro dopo la guerra: Boy si rifiuta di concederglielo.
Walter denuncia tale situazione, ma viene arrestato dalla Gestapo e torturato. Tornato a casa sanguinante e in fin di vita, l'uomo muore tra le braccia della moglie Maud. I nazisti sono quindi costretti a far chiudere l'ospedale per non urtare eccessivamente l'opinione pubblica. L' attacco di Pearl Harbor. Nel dicembre della famiglia Dewar al completo decide di far visita a Chuck alle Hawaii. Gli Stati Uniti dichiarano guerra al Giappone e alla Germania.
Poco tempo dopo, anche Chuck muore nella guerra del Pacifico, per salvare la vita di Eddie durante una battaglia. Gli americani invadono l'Italia e successivamente la Francia, mentre i tedeschi arretrano sempre maggiormente dal fronte orientale. In Francia, Lloyd assiste alla morte del suo fratellastro Boy. In Inghilterra, Woody Dewar si reca a una festa organizzata da Daisy e qui incontra Bella Hernandez, una brillante studentessa di storia a Oxford.
Le forze Alleate iniziano ad invadere la Germania e accerchiano Berlino. Nell'aprile del Hitler si suicida nel suo bunker nella capitale tedesca. Berlino viene suddivisa in quattro zone: Werner ed Erik vengono portati in dei campi di prigionia in Russia.