The second law of thermodynamics is sometimes (too succinctly) stated . Going from ATP to ADP is a spontaneous increase of entropy, which a) 2LOT addresses the entropy of an entire system, and life on earth is . My Yahoo · Twitter . Q: How can carbon dating work on things that were never alive?. CrossRef citations to date. 0. Altmetric. Listen Thermodynamic studies indicate that the adsorption system was spontaneous and exothermic. Moreover, the. Views. CrossRef citations to date. 0. Altmetric. Listen +20 2 86 Fax: Tel. +20 2 86 [email protected] The thermodynamic parameters of methylene blue/clay system indicated spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process. The results demonstrate.
The curvature at the event of horizons of black holes are also infinite. Using calculus, you are able to deal with these infinite points. Rob October 12, at 6: In reality though, the star and the rock and the magic soup all allegedly evolved from simpler chemicals to get to that point, so what about them?
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How did they come to be, in violation of the 2LOT? So how does an explosion of hot quarks come to order itself into giant fusion reactors and distinct globes of orbiting matter ready to produce life with one globe having generated enough life that it has overrun the planet.
THAT is what I want someone to answer. Non Credenti October 13, at 7: This is not a violation of 2LOT. Flange the Flee November 22, at If entropy is a fundamental principle of our universe, how is it that our universe is filled with complex systems?
In other words, the form of the universe itself demands that there must be another principle that defies entropy. But no one seems to want to acknowledge that.
Such tendency was related to the protonation of the biomass surface for acidic attacks and the hydrolysis of the inner pigments for bleaching treatments. On the other hand, Kinetic rate constants were determined and the data fit well with Lagergren first-order using raw PLS and pseudo second order model for treated PLS. As well, adsorption parameters for Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined at different pH and the equilibrium data fit well with the Freundlich model at all experimented pH.
Dealing with the comparative study, the related results Cf. Table 3 revealed that the P. However, other sorbents have shown higher dye removal capacities among them Kluyveromyces marxianus Bustard, et al. Therefore, in addition to its phenol and methylene blue removal capacities Ncibi, et al. Currently, a study on the immobilization of some fungi or bacteria onto the Posidonia fibres is in progress in order to optimize the dye uptake capacity.
Removal of lead from aqueous solution using low cost abundantly available adsorbents.
Thermodynamic system and spontaneity?
A comparative study on the biosorption characteristics of some yeasts for Remazol Blue reactive dye. Biosorption of reactive dues by dried activated sludge: Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: Use of cellulosebased wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions.
Removal of Cr from synthetic wastewater by sorption into volcanic ash soil. Adsorption characteristics of the dye, brilliant green, on neem leaf powder. Dyes Pigments, 57, Biosorption of textile dyes by biomass derived from Kluveromyces marxianus IMB3. Adsorption study for the removal of a basic dye: Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: Dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust.
Utilization of powdered peanut hull as biosorbent for removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solution. Dyes Pigments, 64, A kinetic study of dye sorption by biosorbent waste product pith.
Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Sorption of dyes and copper ions onto biosorbents. Removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solution by different bacterial genera.Thermodynamic Systems
Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pretreated narrow-leaved cattail Typha angustifolia Linn. Adsorptive removal of textile reactive dye using Posidonia oceanica L. Biosorption of oxidation of cellulose preparation and characterization of phenol onto Posidonia oceanica L.
Equilibrium and kinetic modelling. Kinetic and Kumar, V.
Thermodynamic Systems and Spontaneity?
Prediction of optimum equilibrium studies of methylene blue biosorption by sorption isotherm: Comparison of linear and non-linear Posidonia oceanica L. Biosorption of basic Polman, J. Adsorptive apple pomace and wheat straw. The decrease in equivalence point while plotting against the varied composition of these mixed solvent systems percentages is represented in Figure 2.
The various mixed solvents influenced in equivalent point into different extents depending upon their dielectric constant, solvation behaviors and interaction with water and solute. However the dissolution of Ca OH 2 was decreased slightly by increasing temperatures.
Thermodynamic Systems and Spontaneity? | Yahoo Answers
The reversed trend in dissolution against temperature, in Ca OH 2 was found due to its lattice energy. The solvation of ion was possibly influenced by temperature in two ways. For instance it has been reported that ions- ions interaction is usually decreased by increasing temperature that results in the solvation of ions which enhances by rise in temperature [ 111719 - 21 ].
However, the solvation of ions may inversely be influenced by the rise in temperature, were a possible decrease in solvation occurs with the rise in temperature.
The decreasing trend in the solubility was minimum up to 5 percentage composition in all the mixed solvent systems whereas, a significant decrease occurred from percentage compositions of mixture solvents. The reason of such behavior is the nature of dielectric constant, extent of solvent— solvent interaction and solvent—solute interaction, which is reported in literature [ 22 - 24 ].
thermodynamic system and spontaneity? | Yahoo Answers
The dielectric constant is the ability of any solvent, which reduces the forces between solute ions. Since the dielectric constant of water is 80, which is greater than that of any solvent so it reduces the force of attraction between solute ions, as a result ions are separated and solute is dissolved.
Therefore, solubility of any salt is greater in water than in the other solvents. As the percentage compositions of these solvents increased in water the values of dielectric constant decreases as a result solubility also decreases. Solubility product values of Calcium hydroxide, in pure aqueous system as well as in mixed solvent systems like methanol-water, ethanol —water, 1-propanol-water and 2-propanol water were calculated from their solubility values from the equation 2 and represented in Table 1 and 2.
This trend was found similar in both temperatures. This can be explained on the bases of change in structure change, dielectric constant values, ion solvation, crystal forces and ionic radius of the Ca OH 2. However the Ca OH 2 are unfortunately less soluble and has low dissolution in water and mixed solvent system, the dissolution enthalpies of the Ca OH 2 could not measure directly but have only been evaluate by using equation 4 [ 1 - 52930 ].
Ktherefore the possibility of scattering is more. Obviously it is due to the exothermic nature of calcium hydroxide. Time effect on pH calcium hydroxide solution showed that an increase in pH was observed in different mixed solvent at different percentage composition of solvent as compared to blank. It indicates that less dissociation occurred in blank compared to mixed solvent system within 60 minutes. Maximum pH was observed in 2-propanol to 1-proppanol and ethanol while methanol showed intermediate an intermediate behavior.
It indicates that maximum dissociation of calcium hydroxide occurred in that solvent which has high pH values as compared to other solvent. For approaching limiting value more time was required in various composition of solvent compared to blank.